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Lets wrap up Islamiat Paper: you have doubts post them and get the solutions

Discussion in 'Cambridge O Levels' started by Irfan Atique, May 9, 2013.

  1. Irfan Atique

    Irfan Atique

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    Hi my dear dear good good educated students, if you want to discuss islamiat paper 2 than lets start here... thanks
     
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  3. Irfan Atique

    Irfan Atique

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    Question: Describe the ways in which the earliest companions started their compilations of Hadis? [10]
    Question: What methods were adopted to preserve the Hadis? [10]
    Question: Write a note on the History of Ahadis? [10]
    Question: Discuss the compilation of Ahadis in the early centuries of Islam? [10]
    Answer: The first period of the compilation of the Ahadis was during Holy Prophet (S.A.W) lifetime. Prophet himself would give instructions about the transmission of what he taught, “Preach what you hear me say. Also let those who see and hear me, take upon themselves to communicate my words to others and preach to their children, relatives and friends.” The Companions had three methods of learning or preservation of the Hadis; memorization, writing, and practice. The companions always tried to observe the actions of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W), remember his sayings and then apply what they saw to their own practices in their everyday life.
    Abu Hurairah used to write what he heard from the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) in a book form and more than 5000 Ahadis were attributed to him. Similarly, Hazrat Ali (R.A) had a booklet containing traditions which concerned the orders and instructions from time to time by the Holy Prophet (S.A.W). Hazrat Abdullah bin Umar (R.A) wrote every word of Holy Prophet (S.A.W)’s speech and more than 2000 Ahadis were attributed to him. Hence during this time more than 10000 Ahadis were collected. Hazrat Aisha (R.A) also used to preserve the sayings of Holy Prophet (S.A.W) likewise Hazrat Abdullah bin Abbas was engaged in preserving and transmitting the Ahadis
    During this period the companions acted and wrote what the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) said individually.
    The second period of compilation (101-200 AH) was after the Holy Prophet’s death. New converts wanted to hear about him (S.A.W) and therefore the companions were the first source of information who narrated to their successor (Tabaeen).
    Umar bin Abdul Malik gave the official orders that the Ahadis should be compiled. Therefore many scholars prepared many collections of the Ahadis and various methods were adopted in its arrangement. The first method was by tracing them to each companion despite the theme. It is called Masnad, the titles of their chapters are Masnad of Abu Bakr (R.A), Masnad of Abu Hurairah (R.A), Masnad of Hazrat Bibi Aisha (R.A), and the famous compilation by Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal.
    The second category was by grouping the Ahadis into chapters and some of the chapters according to their theme. The best non-compilation of this type is Al-Mutah by Imam Malik and Al-Musannaf of Imam Abdul Razaq. The compilers introduced each Ahadis with its own Isnad (series of authorities). But they did not discriminate between the authentic and less authentic Ahadis. So they were mixed up.
    Third period (Golden period) (200-300 AH) - The third period begin with the death of the companions. Muslims had to rely on the communication of the successors who narrated to the Taba Ta baeen or successors of the successors. This was the golden age of Ahadis. Reciting and memorizing traditions was considered to be a privilege and soon a great number of them had been collected. Ahadis could be authentic or lesser authentic and so the early authorities included only those Ahadis which they considered to be genuine. The ones suspected to be fabricated were rejected. They said that the text should have no conflict with the Quran or with more reliable Hadis. Isnad must be full and unbroken while the narrators must be known for his memory, piety and knowledge.
    The Asol ul-Hadis was already been developed and Ismail Al-Bukhari’s idea to compile the authentic Ahadis through a branch of Asol ul-Hadith called Asma ur-Rijal (to check the chain of Tranmitters) he gathered 600000 of them out of which more than 7000 were added to his work and it took him 16 years to compile. He was followed by number of other scholars such as Imam Muslim ibne Hajaj. The collection by Bukhari and Muslim are held in great esteem and are known as the two Sahihs that is the two collection recognized as absolutely authentic. Abu Daud author of al-Sunan, Al-Tirmizi, author of Al-Jame, Al-Nasai author of al-Sunnah and ibne Majah author of Kitab Al-Sunnah. These four works along with Bukhari and Muslim became widely recognized in the Muslim world as six leading books called Al-Kutub Al-Sitta or the six Sahihs.
    In the last period many other scholars compiled new collections. Their contents were taken from the six books and arranged in various ways until it was felt that all the Ahadis circulating orally introduced to writing. Hence the Hadis literature became exceedingly rich and finally came to the state as we know it today. It is guide for all Muslims.
     
  4. Irfan Atique

    Irfan Atique

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    Q: How did the compilers of six books of Hadis judge between acceptable and unacceptable Hadis? [10]
    Q: Describe the methods employed by the compilers of the major books of Hadis to insure the Hadis that they were authentic?
    Q: What methods were used by the major collectors to insure the Hadis they accepted were genuine?
    Q: What method was used by the collectors of six major books of Hadis to insure that the sayings of the Prophet (S.A.W) they accepted were genuine?
    Q: Explaing the method adopted by the compilers of Hadith in establishing the authenticity of the Ahadith [10]
    Q: How did the compilers of Hadis (Muhaddithun) judge between an acceptable and unacceptable Hadis? [10]
    Q: Explaing the method adopted by the compilers of Hadith in establishing the authenticity of the Ahadith? [10]
    Answer: In the second century of Hijrah the Muhaddithun paid complete attention to compile the Hadiths. This was so because some hypocrites and non-Muslims wanted to fabricate the Hadiths. Imam Bukhari and other scholars took this seriously and introduced some principles to ensure the authenticity of the Hadith. A Hadith is divided into 2 parts the first part is the Sand and the second is the Man. For e.g. A hadith narrated by Imam Bukhari is as follows “It is reported to us by Ubaidullah saying he heard Hanzalah who came to know from Ikramah saying he heard Ibn-e-Umar who narrates form the Prophet SAW “Islam has been based upon five pillars bearing the wines that Allah is One and Muhammad is His messenger, establishing the regular prayer, paying de regular charity, fasting in the month of Ramadan and the annual pilgrimage.” The first part which mentions the chain of transmitters is the Sanad and the second part which the body or text is the matn.
    The Muhaddithun assessed both parts of the Hadith in a highly meticulous way. For the Sanad, the chain of narrators were carefully studied and observed. Through the art of Asma-Ur-Rijal (Names of Men) their biographies were collected and investigated in detail. Each transmitter had to be in possession of firm faith, sound mind, an excellent memory and an upright character. So much so, if the transmitter had ever cheated anyone or even lied to anyone in the matter of joke the Hadith was rejected. The compilers also ensured that the transmitter was present from the time he collected or heard the Hadith till the time he transmitted it. In addition the first transmitter had to be the companion of the Holy Prophet (SAW), for this the Muhaddithun compared the the place and birth of the transmitter, the places and the people he met. Lastly, the chain of transmitters had to be totally and perfectly uninterrupted.
    Similarly, the matn was checked thoroughly. They ensured it was in accordance with the teachings of the Quran and Sunnah and was not conflicting with any of those two. For e.g. The Hadith will not be accepted if it says to offer 6 daily prayers. Moreover, it should also not contradict with human reason and logic. Example fasting the whole month is outside human capability. Matn also shouldn’t praise or condemn any person or tribe from the future or history by calling its name. Finally, matn should not contain details in a precise way about any future event. The six tradition books are the most authentic and reliable books of all the books on the traditions. They are called Sihah sitta. The books among Sihah sitta are Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Sunan Abu Daud, Jam’e Tirmidhi, Sunan Nasai and Sunan Ibn-e-Majah.
     
  5. Irfan Atique

    Irfan Atique

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    Question: Explain the importance of the Isnad (chain of transmitters) and of the Matan (body of text) in assisting scholars to check the authenticity of a Hadith? [10]
    Answer: The importance of the Isnad and the Matan in assisting scholars to check the authenticity of Hadith were made in 4th generation of compilers of Hadith by Imam Bukhari and his contemporaries (Muslim, Nisai, Tirmizi, Ibn-e Majah and Abu Daud). They travelled far off to find the transmitters of Hadith and rejected the sayings of those who were not pious; Once, Imam Bukhari travelled very far to get knowledge of Hadith by a narrator. When he arrived there he saw that the narrator of the Hadith was calling his camel towards himself by showing it his empty food box (as if food was in it). Imam Bukhari turned and walked away by saying that if he can deceive an animal, he can deceive me as well and so his Hadith was unreliable. They faced great difficulties in checking the authenticity of Hadith as at that time a huge number of Ahadith were in circulation. The solution they chose was to test the authenticity of Hadith by their rules of Isnad (chain of transmitters) and Matan (the body of the text).
    The rules set for the Isnad (chain of transmitters) are:
    They ensured the chain of transmitters (Isnad) was unbroken and there should be a direct approach to the Holy Prophet (S.A.W).They checked that the transmitters were known to those before and to those after them in chain. There shouldn’t be any hidden defects e.g. names repeated, major misspelling. No non-Muslim in the chain. Each transmitter must have known the transmitter before him and transmitter after him. There must not be a very big time gap that one narrator hears when he is too young from someone too old. Any event happening in public must have more than one set of narrators. They rejected Hadith whose chain of transmitters were questionable (no gaps or weaknesses)
    The rules set for the Matan (body of the text) are:
    The Hadith should not go in contradiction with the Holy Quran nor the basics of Islamic teachings. The Hadith should not go in contradiction with any authentic (accepted) Hadith. It should not go against commonsense or people’s normal experience. It should not praise an individual, a definite location or a tribe. It should not give precise details of the events happened after the demise of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W).It should not contain expressions that were out of keeping with what the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) might be expected to use. The Hadith should be free from hidden defects like faults in minute details e.g. dates etc. If the Hadith made any remark about Prophet Hood of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W), which is against the Islamic principles, is rejected. Any Hadith that begins with “We used to…….” Without direct mentioning of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) was ignored as
     
  6. Irfan Atique

    Irfan Atique

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    Question: Describe the qualities required and say why these qualities were important for transmitting hadiths? [10]
    The qualities which are reqired to check the individual Narrator in the chain of transmitter of a Hadith are:
    The narrator of the Hadis must be of firm faith and honest. He must be known for truthfulness in whatever he reports. The narrator must be trustworthy, reliable and righteous. He should understand what he report and know how a change of word can change the ideas in it. He should report exactly what he has learned from his teacher and not to use his own words. The narrator must have a very good sound memory. He should report what agrees with the reporters of others known to have good memories. A narrator cannot criticize someone that the Ummah has accepted. Examples are Imam Bukhari and Imam Muslim. Anyone who criticizes these great scholars would be considered to be from the people of innovation and qualities are important for two things in a hadith: Sanad or Isnad refers to the chain of narrators that has reported any given Hadis. In the sciences of Hadis the Muslim Scholars agreed that the chain must begin from the Muhaddis of the Hadis and must ends at the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) or in the case of Hadis e-Qudsi ends at Allah (S.W.T). The concept of Isnad could be thought of as the core of the sciences of Hadis. No other religion, culture, or dynasty on the face of this earth has ever come up with such a precise method of bringing for statements of a person then with the Isnad system in Islam. One of the most famous Muslim scholar Abdullah bin Al Mubarak said “The Isnad to me is part of the Deen. If it wasn’t for the Isnad anyone would say anything he wanted” so we are the only Ummah of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) is also known as the Ummah of Isnad because no other religion in this present world has the weapon of Isnad. Isnad basically a rigorous testing of the links between individuals and transmitting the Hadis from the Muhaddis till it reaches Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) and through this testing Muslims are certain of the authenticity of the Hadis.
    The Matan refers to the actual text of Hadis which is authentic in the actual Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W). It is the text of the tradition or what the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) actually said or did. The text or Matan of the Hadis must not conflict or contradict with the Holy Quran nor should it conflict with other reliable or authentic Hadis. For example the Holy Quran says “Establish prayer” and the Hadis of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) explains it as “Pray as you see me praying” so this Matan of Hadis explains us the rules of praying Salah.
    With these rules the compilers of authentic books of Ahadis were able to classify Hadis into types:
    a) Sahih (the authentic)
    b) Hassan (fair, about which little doubt)
    c) Zaeef (weak, which raises many doubts concerning authenticity)
    d) Maudu (fabricated, un-Islamic)
     
  7. rammy97

    rammy97

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    Can u upload answers of sum questions regardin the first four Khalifas?
    thanx in advance!!!
     
  8. Irfan Atique

    Irfan Atique

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  9. Irfan Atique

    Irfan Atique

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    Question: How the Hadith was compiled during prophet’s life? [10]
    The first period of the compilation of the Ahadis was during Holy Prophet (S.A.W)’s lifetime. Prophet himself would give instructions about the transmission of what he taught, “Preach what you hear me say. Also let those who see and hear me, take upon themselves to communicate my words to others and preach to their children, relatives and friends.” There is another report according to which on the Farewell Pilgrimage, the Prophet said, and “He who is present here should carry this message to him who is absent.”
    The Companions had three methods of learning or preservation of the Ahadis which are: memorization, writing, and practice. The companions always tried to observe the actions of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W), remember his sayings and then apply what they saw to their own practices in their everyday life. The companions considered it their duty to preach the Ahadis to those who had not seen or listened to him. A party of students called Ashab-e-Suffah lived in the mosque itself was entrusted with the teaching of religion to tribes outside Madinah. From this group most famous was Abu Hurairah (RA) who remained in The Prophet (S.A.W)’s Company at all the times and stores up in his memory everything that Prophet said or did. Abu Hurairah (RA)’s efforts were from the very beginning directed towards the preservation of Ahadis.
    Abu Hurairah used to write what he heard from the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) in a book form and more than 5000 Ahadis were attributed to him. Similarly, Hazrat Ali (R.A) had a booklet containing traditions which concerned the orders and instructions from time to time by the Holy Prophet (S.A.W). Hazrat Abdullah bin Umar (R.A) wrote every word of Holy Prophet (S.A.W)’s speech and more than 2000 Ahadis were attributed to him. Hence during this time more than 10000 Ahadis were collected. Hazrat Aisha (R.A) also used to preserve the sayings of Holy Prophet (S.A.W) likewise Hazrat Abdullah bin Abbas was engaged in preserving and transmitting the Ahadis It is related from Abu Hurairah (RA) that once one of the companions told the Prophet of his inability to remember what he heard from him. His reply was that he should seek the help of his right hand i.e., write it down. (Tirmizi) Abdullah bin Umar (R.A) began to write down whatever he heard from the Holy Prophet (S.A.W). His collections contained around 10,000 Ahadis. Abdullah bin Umar (R.A) himself said: “I used to write everything that I heard from the Prophet (S.A.W) intending to commit it to memory. I spoke about it to the prophet (S.A.W) who said: “write down, for I only speak the truth.”(Abu Daud)
    Another report of Abu Hurairah (RA): ‘None of the companions preserved more traditions than me, but Abdullah bin Amr is an exception for he used to write and I did not.” (Bukhari) Hazrat Ali (R.A) used to write down Ahadis concerning the Orders, Instructions issued from Holy Prophet (S.A.W). Hazrat Aisha (R.A) also used to preserve the sayings of Holy Prophet (S.A.W) Abdullah bin Umar and Abdullah bin Abbas were engaged in preserving and transmitting the Ahadis. The Compilation of Abdullah bin Umar was known as Sadiqa. Process of compilation started in the Life of Holy Prophet (S.A.W) during this period the companions acted and wrote what the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) said individually.
     
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  10. Irfan Atique

    Irfan Atique

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    Question: What are the Stages that led to the compilation of 6 authentic books of Hadith? [10]
    Stage One: Time of the Prophet (s)
    Companions recorded statements and actions of the Prophet (s) – some memorized while others memorized as well as wrote it. An example of such companions is Abdullah ibn Amr ibn Al-Aas. Given the absence of literacy amongst most, they had developed their memory exceptionally well as that is all they had to rely for most important affairs of their lives as well as for their forms of “entertainment”, i.e. poetry. This was further developed due to importance of memorizing the Quran and reciting every day in the five time prayers. Practically no Muslim could be a practicing Muslim without memorizing at least some hadith (statements etc.) of the Prophet – to know what to recite during the compulsory five times prayers, to arbitrate in disputes between themselves at a family level or that of community. So hadith were indispensable and therefore some memorized by every Muslim.
    Stage Two: Companions (Sahabah) of the Prophet Muhammad (s)
    Efforts of Sahabah in collection for own practice and fatwa for others e.g. Abu Hurairah (d. 59H), Abdullah Ibn Abbas (d. 68H), Jabir ibn Abdullah (d. 78H), Aisha bint Abu Bakr (d. 58H), Anas ibn Malik (10BH-93AH), Abudllah ibn Amr ibn al-Aas (d. 63H), Abdullah ibn Umar (d. 74H) and Abdullah ibn Masud (d. 32H) Efforts of Sahabah in ensuring authenticity e.g. Umar ibn Khattab and Aishah they memorized it and some wrote it e.g. Abdullah ibn Amr ibn Aas or their students wrote it from them e.g. students of Ibn Abbas, Abu Hurairah, etc.
    Stage Three: Tabieen (Students of the Prophet’s Companions)
    Efforts of Tabieen who devoted their lives at some stage to collection of hadith, e.g. Urwah ibn Zubair (nephew of Aisha), Nafi Mawla of Abudllah ibn Umar, Thabit ibn Aslam al-Bunani (spent forty years with Anas ibn Malik); also Amrah bint Abdurahman Mawla of Aisha grew up with Aisha learning. Written Collection: Many of Tabieen collected and compiled their hadith in books which were incorporated in books by the next generation and most of those that survive today are in that form as part of other larger books.
    Stage Four: Efforts of Next generation after Tabieen (Atbaa Tabieen)
    Jarh wa Ta’deel: Assessed soundness of narrators of Tabieen’s generation and their own e.g. Shubah (83H – 160H), Malik ibn Anas (93H – 179H), Zuhri (d. 124H), Yahya ibn Saeed al-Qattan (a companion of Imam Malik ibn Anas) Collection of hadith from previous generation by travelling extensively to them or spending long time with them e.g. all of tabieen mentioned above plus many others such as Ibn Sireen (d. 110H) and Hasan al-Basri (d. 110) Compiling and authored books of hadith that are still in circulation today e.g. Malik ibn Anas, Abdullah ibn Mubarak (d. 181 H), Ibn Ishaq (d. 151H). Many others of this and the previous generation (Tabieen) were encouraged (during the first century of Islam) by the Ruler (Caliph) of Muslims then Umar ibn Abdul-Aziz (d. 101H). Umar ibn AbdulAziz, the Caliph, was himself a leading scholar of Islam.
    Stage Five: Extensive analysis and collections of written works
    The most important stage is known as the stage of Saheeh. This stage began during the first half of the third century A.H. (9thcentury C.E.) and overlaps the period of the musnad e.g. Saheeh al-Bukhaaree, Saheeh Muslim and Saheeh Ibn Khuzaymah. This age of the followers of the companions’ successors from 200 to 300 A.H., is the golden age in Hadith literature.
    1. In this age the Prophet’s traditions were separated from the reports of the companions and their successors.
    2. The authentic traditions were very carefully and painstakingly sifted from the “weak” traditions and then these were compiled in book-form.
    3. Elaborate rules were framed; canons were devised to distinguish the true from the false traditions in accordance with clear principles.
    The main attention of scholars who engaged themselves in the critical scrutiny of Hadith was given to the recorded chains of witnesses (isnad); whether the dates of birth and death and places of residence of witnesses in different generations were such as to have made it possible for them to meet, and whether they were trustworthy. This activity, to be properly carried out, involved some feeling for the authenticity of the text itself; an experienced traditionist would develop a sense of discrimination.
    This is the period in which six authentic collections of traditions were compiled. These works are considered standard works on Hadith, and are known as the six correct books (sihah-e-sittah). The authors’ names and book titles are as follows:
    1. Muhammad b. Ismail al Bukhari, (194 A.H.-256 A.H.): Sahih. This work is next to the Quran in authenticity.
    2. Muslim bin Qushairi (204 A.H.-261 A.H.): Sahih. This is the next most important work on Hadith.
    3. Ibn Majah (202 A.H.-275 A.H.): Sunan
    4. Abu Isa al Tirmizi (209 A.H.-279 A.H.): Jame
    5. Abu Abdur Rahman an Nasai (214 A.H.-303 A.H.): Sunan
    6. Abu Da‘ud (202 A.H.-275 A.H.): Sunan
    Question: What is the significance of al-Kutub al-Sittah in Hadith Literature for Muslim scholars? [4]
    Al-Kutub Al-Sittah consists of most authentic and reliable Hadis which comprise the content of Sunnah, one of the two fundamental sources of Islamic religion the other sources being the Quran. For this reason Al-Kutub Al-Sittah have been appreciated by Muslim scholars with great enthusiasm and celebrated by them. This widespread acceptance and appreciation have been what have given them their unique status in Hadis literature. Their fame is based first and foremost on the fact that their authors primarily intended to bring together the most authentic Hadis narrations available.
    One reason why Al-Kutub Al-Sittah had become so popular among scholarly circles is the attitude of their authors which is based on painstaking investigation and serious hard work. As the result there have been many studies conducted on these books. For example the number of monographs on Al-Bukhari alone exceeds to 100. These six prominent books also draw upon the Hadis text composed before them. They therefore not only constitute the main productions on the golden age of Hadis but also functions as original sources in themselves. The authors of Al-Kutub Al-Sittah have also gained great respect by making the greatest contribution to the study of Hadis and shedding light on Hadis sources for later generations of scholars due to their unique and tireless contributions
     
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  11. Irfan Atique

    Irfan Atique

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    Question: Write down the distinctive features of Sahih al-Bukhari and Sahih al-Muslim?
    Answer: Distinctive Features of Sahih Bukhari
    Quality and soundness of the chain of narrators of the selected ahādīth. Imam Bukhari has followed two principle criteria for selecting sound narratives. First, the lifetime of a narrator should overlap with the lifetime of the authority from whom he narrates. Second, it should be verifiable that narrators have met with their source persons. They should also expressly state that they obtained the narrative from these authorities. This is a stricter criterion than that set by Imam Muslim. Imam Bukhari accepted the narratives from only those who, according to his knowledge, not only believed in Islam but practiced its teachings. Thus, he has not accepted narratives from the Murjites.
    The particular arrangement and ordering of chapters. This expresses the profound knowledge of the author and his understanding of the religion. This has made the book a more useful guide in understanding of the religious disciplines.
    Distinctive Features of Sahih Muslim
    Imam Muslim recorded only such narratives as were reported by two reliable successors from two Companions which subsequently travelled through two independent unbroken isnāds consisting of sound narrators. Imām Bukhārī has not followed such a strict criterion in the scientific arrangement of themes and chapters. The author, for example, selects a proper place for the narrative and, next to it, puts all its versions. Imām Bukhārī has not followed this method (he scatters different versions of a narrative and the related material in different chapters). Consequently, in the exercise of understanding ahādīth, Sahīh of Imām Muslim offers the best material to the students.
    The Imam informs us whose wordings among the narrators he has used. For example he says: haddathanā fulān wa fulān wallafz lifulān (A and B has narrated this hadīth to us and the wording used here is by A). Similarly he mentions whether, in a particular hadīth, the narrators have differed over the wordings even over a single letter of zero semantic significance. He also informs the readers if narrators have differed over a specific quality, surname, relation or any other fact about a narrator in the chain

     
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  12. Irfan Atique

    Irfan Atique

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    Question: Name the six collections of Sunni Hadis books and discuss their main features?
    Question: Write down the main features of the 6 Sunni Hadith books?
    Question: Describe the main features of Sunni compilation of Hadith books of the 3rd century?
    Answer: The 6 collections of Sunni Hadis books which are also called Sahih Al-Sittah or Al-Kutub Al-Sittah are:
    • Sahih AL-Bukhari: (194-256 A.H
    • Sahih Muslim: (204-264 A.H)
    • Sunan Abu Daud: (202-275 A.H)
    • Sunan Tirmizi: (209-279 A.H)
    • Sunan Ibne Majah: (209-273 A.H)
    • Sunan Nisai: (214-303 A.H)
    Most of the Hadis contained in these six books are considered Sahih (authentic and reliable) by Scholars. Although all of the authors said they aimed to include mostly authentic Hadis, none of them claimed that they were able to gather all of the authentic Hadis therefore it is a fact that there are many authentic Hadis not contained in Al-Kutub Al-Sittah as well. The first Muslim scholar who undertook a project of composing a book to contain only authentic Hadis was Imam Muhammad bin Ismail Al-Bukhari; others followed the path that he led. It has been reported in the sources that when these books are evaluated in terms of the authenticity of the Hadis contained in them and of their sources, the books by Imam Al-Bukhari and Muslim’s work should only be precede as a general attribute; that is to say that if each Hadis be analyzed separately, different levels of authenticity can be attributed to them regardless of the book which contains them. In other words the superiority of Al-Bukhari’s Sahih or the fact that An-Nisai’s Sunan is the last one on the list, does not indicate the degree of the strength or weakness of any individual Hadis.
    In all the books of Al-Kutub Al-Sittah, the Hadis are classified according to their subject matters; all the Hadis regarding a topic are gathered under similar titles. However, there are some differences amongst the authors in terms of their classification of different topics and there titles, for each of them employ their own unique methods of classification. In Al-Kutub Al-Sittah an individual authentic Hadis can be found sometimes in all of the six books, at other times in only one of them; but mostly the Hadis will be included in several of the books. An individual Hadis may or may not be repeated several times by the books.
    All six authors lived in the 3rd century after the Hijra except for An-Nisai (d 303). 4 of the authors were students of Imam Al-Bukhari at one point in their carriers. That is to say almost all of them were contemporaneous and had a relation of teacher student with Imam Al-Bukhari. Virtually all of the authors wrote separate books on biographies of the narrators whom they themselves narrated the Hadis. When taken together the books comprising Al-Kutub Al-Sittah and their differing features represent the entire Hadis literature in terms of their content and methodology. Thus they complement each other in different ways: if someone wishes to find more information regarding Islamic Fiqh they can resort to Al-Bukhari’s Sahih; one wishing fewer taliqat in Hadis can go to Muslim’s Sahih: one who wishes for more information on the narration of Hadis can look it up in Tirmizi’s Jami; one who wishes to find Hadis only on Fiqh topics should consult Abu Daud’s Sunan; one who wishes to find Hadis perfect classification according to the topics in Fiqh could resort to Ibne Majah’s Sunan. Finally many of these features are simultaneously included in the Sunan of An-Nisai. None of the authors of Al-Kutub Al-Sittah were followers of a school of thought in Islamic Fiqh yet they themselves were deeply knowledgeable in Fiqh.
     
  13. Irfan Atique

    Irfan Atique

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    Question: What is the importance of Hadith in Islamic teachings? [10]Question: What is the importance of Hadith in Islamic teachings? [10]
    Answer: The two fundamental sources of Islam are the Quran (the word of God) and the Sunnah (the example) of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him). By Sunnah, we mean the actions, sayings and silent permissions (or disapprovals) of the Prophet.
    The word "Sunnah" is also used to refer to religious duties that are optional. Here, we are concerned with Sunnah in the sense of the recorded sayings (Hadiths) of Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him). In this sense, Hadith is considered to be second to the Quran. It is impossible to understand the Quran without reference to the Hadith; and it is impossible to explain a hadith without relating it to the Quran. The Quran is the message, while the Hadith is the verbal translation of the message into pragmatic terms, as exemplified by the Prophet. While the Quran is the metaphysical basis of the Sunnah, the Sunnah is the practical demonstration of the precepts laid down in the Qur'an. The duty of the Messenger was not just to communicate the message; rather, he was entrusted with the most important task of explaining and illustrating that message. That is the reason why Allah Himself has commanded the following: “Say: Obey Allah and obey the Messenger, but if you turn away, he (the Prophet) is only responsible for the duty placed on him (i.e. to convey Allah's Message) and you for that placed on you. If you obey him, you shall be on the right guidance. The Messenger's duty is only to convey (the message) in a clear way” (An-Nur 24:54) this verse clearly tells us the overriding importance of Hadith to Muslims. They should be eager to learn and follow the teachings of the Prophet as expressed in Hadith. If we are negligent in this respect, it is we who have to answer before Allah. Speaking of the importance of Hadith, we need to take into consideration two broad aspects of the subject. We know that Allah Almighty revealed the Quran to His chosen Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him). So it is through the Prophet we come to hear the word of Allah; and it is the Prophet himself who can properly explain and demonstrate the precepts in the Quran. Without the required explanations and illustrations given by the Prophet, the Quran may be misunderstood and misinterpreted by people. So the Prophet took care to explain and demonstrate to his companions how the Quranic verses must be read and understood. That is to say, the importance of Hadith is linked to the importance of the Quran.
    For example, the details of how to perform salah (ritual prayer), for instance, were given by the Prophet through his words and action, and not by the Quran. This means that we wouldn't know how to pray, fast, pay zakah, or perform Hajj without the examples given by the Prophet as recorded in the Hadith. Indeed, all necessary details are given in the Hadith, not in the Quran.The revelation of each of the verses of the Quran took place at some critical junctures in the life of the Prophet. Of course, there are verses of universal application and significance, irrespective of the context in which those verses were revealed. But there are other verses that can be understood or interpreted only in the light of the actual context in the life of the Prophet, which called for that revelation. There are many examples. For instance, the following verse in the Surah Aali `Imran: “If any one disputes in this matter with thee, now after (full) knowledge hath come to thee, Say: Come! Let us gather together, our sons and your sons, our women and your women, ourselves and yourselves: then let us earnestly pray. And invoke the curse of Allah on those who lie” (Aali-Imran 3:61) This verse talks about mubahala (invoking the curse of Allah on those who take a dishonest stand); and was revealed when the Prophet was conferring with the Christian delegation from Najran in 631 CE This example clearly shows how we need to refer to the life and example of the Prophet to understand the context, as well as the meaning of verses, such as the above mentioned one in the Quran.
    The foregoing shows how Hadith, in practical terms, explains, clarifies, and paraphrases the Quran. If we reject the Hadith, we may misread the Quran; so Hadith is central to a proper understanding of the Quran. In the Quran, Allah Almighty commands us not only to obey the Messenger, but also to abide by his decisions as follows: “But no, by thy Lord, they can have no real faith until they make thee judge in all disputes between them and find in their souls no resistance against thy decisions but accept them with the fullest conviction” (An-Nisaa' 4:65)And surely we find such decisions only in the Hadith; the duty of Muslims is to accept the Prophet's decisions whole-heartedly. The Quran also orders the faithful to emulate the role model of the Messenger and reckons it to be the only way to gain the pleasure of Allah.
    It is therefore obligatory that we look up to the Prophet's morals and exemplary character and carry them out in our lives. We can never do so without studying Hadith. It is most illuminating in this respect to learn that when `A'ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) was asked to describe the character of the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), her definitive answer was, "His character was that of the Quran." In other words, Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) personified the best ideals and values of the Qur'an. How could we then neglect the Hadith, which alone can lead us to the precise ways in which the Prophet exemplified the Qur'anic ideals?
     
  14. Irfan Atique

    Irfan Atique

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    Question: Outline the major differences between the Masnad and Musannaf collections of Hadith? [4]
    Answer: Masnad collection of Hadis:
    The Musnad collection of Hadis are the books in which Ahadis are arranged according to the names of the ‘Sahaba’. Meaning that all the Ahadis narrated by a particular ‘Sahabi’ are compiled at one place, no matter what subject any Hadis deal with. The criterion of the selection of ‘Sahabi’ is either based upon seniority that is who embraced Islam first, or on alphabetical order. Some of the ‘Masaneed’ based upon the names of ‘Sahaba’ are:
    1. Masnad Abi Daud a: Tyalsee (d. 204 H)
    2. Masnad Abi Ishaq al Jawhari (d.244 H) a collection of Hadis of Hadis byHazrat Abu Bakr (R.A) and others.
    Masnad collection of Hadis is useful for detecting Hadis attributed to particular ‘Sahabi’ (companion). Some of the Masaneed referring to the three Imams are:
    1. Masnad Imam Abu Haneefa
    2. Masnad Al-Shafi
    3. Masnad Ahmed.
    The best known Masnad collection is Ibne Hanbal’s Masnad.
    Al-Musannaf collection of Hadis:
    The Musannaf collections are one of the earliest collections of Ahadis in which Hadis are arranged according to the subject matter. The traditions relating to most or all of the various topics related to Fiqh are put together. The Musannaf collection of the Hadis is useful for understanding the Prophet (S.A.W)’s rulings and verdicts on a particular point of believe or practice. They are particularly helpful and useful in establishing matter of law. The 6 book of Sunni Sahih Hadis are the best known Musannaf collections like Sahih Al-Bukhari, Sahih Al-Muslim.
    Question: What is the difference between Hadis Qudsi and Hadis e-Nabawi? [4]
    Answer: Hadis e-Qudsi is also known as sacred traditions. Hadis e-Qudsi is those which the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) said: “Allah says”. For example Hazrat Umar (R.A) narrated that Holy Prophet (S.A.W) said Allah (S.W.T) says “………” Hadis e-Qudsi is a Hadis attributed to Allah (S.W.T) the most high so in Hadis e-Qudsi our beloved Prophet (S.A.W) directly attributes to Allah (S.W.T) the most high. This means the Islamic scholars said that the meaning and the content is from Allah (S.W.T) himself and the phrases and the verdicts are from our beloved Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W). For example “Verily the Arch Angel breathe in my heart that no soul will die before its appointed time.”
    Hadis e-Nabawi is also known as prophetic traditions. In this Hadis both the wordings and the meanings are from our beloved Prophet (S.A.W), which he understood from the book of Allah and these were sanctioned by Allah (S.W.T) the most high. An example of Hadis e-Nabawi is: Yahiya narrated from Malik who narrated from Nafai who narrated Hazrat Abdullah bin Umar (R.A) that the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) said “He who misses the Asr prayer is as if he have lost his family and property.”
     
  15. Irfan Atique

    Irfan Atique

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    Question: Write down the importance of Hadis as the bases for all thoughts and actions in Islam?
    Question: How have the Hadiths of the Holy Prophet (S) been used as a source of guidance by Muslims? [10]
    Ans: For the purification and guidance of Muslim’s minds and souls the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) issued many instructions and commandments. They helped one to have a clear view of other fellow beings, characters and eradicate evil thoughts. People with evil and ambitious thoughts can never work for the peace, pleasure, satisfaction and wellbeing of others. Good will only comes forth from such minds which are guided and committed to welfare or humans. However, in deserving the following injunctions of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) his or her actions must benefit the society. The Holy Quran defines the roll of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) in elaborating the teachings of the Holy Quran when it says: "...........And We have also sent down unto you (O Muhammad SAW) the reminder and the advice (the Qur’an), that you may explain clearly to men what is sent down to them, and that they may give thought." (16:44) Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) himself conscious of his mortality, attached a great deal of importance to the knowledge of his own Hadis. The Hadis lay down guide lines to govern Human behavior in manner which is appropriate to the way of life which Allah (S.W.T) desires for an individual to lead. They provide directives for even the most minor aspects of human life e.g. what a Muslim recites when he sneezes; start eating, look in the mirror, drinks milk etc. The most brilliant thing about the Hadis is the way they cover the vast dimensions of human life, suggesting appropriate ways to structure, ones thoughts and actions. Hadis not only provide directions but also mention rewards and punishments to those particular actions to encourage conformity and discourage disobedience. “The one who looks after a widow or a poor person is like a Mujahid (warrior) who fights for Allah’s cause or like him who perform prayers all the night and fasts all day” (Sahih Al-Bukhari)
    The teachings of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) not only guides individuals how to act, but also establish a system of believes which go in line with the teachings of the Holy Quran. Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) elaborates the beliefs pertaining to Tawheed, the finality of his Prophet Hood, Articles of Faith, Pillars of Islam etc. He guides us to think of the welfare of other members of the society; to avoid considering other fellow beings with inferiority; to think of one’s self as a humble servant of Allah (S.W.T) to keep the mind clean from all corrupt ideas, to base all our actions on noble intentions etc. Since Islam does not only provide knowledge of virtue and evil, but also provide the application of its system of values and beliefs in the form of appropriate norms, therefore Hadis play a significant to modify an individual’s approach towards life in all thoughts and actions.

     
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  16. Irfan Atique

    Irfan Atique

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    post the questions dear?
     
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  17. ZaMiN RaZa

    ZaMiN RaZa

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    BEHIND YOU...................
    Can you please answer these questions:

    12 (a) In the Hadith you have studied what did the Prophet say and
    mean when he spoke about:
    (i) tolerance
    (ii) evil?
    Why is it important to follow the Hadith and sunnah of the Prophet?
    [10]
     
  18. Lilly2318

    Lilly2318

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    Sir these r ver great answers. THNX!
    cud u expect any of them to come in examination? ( hopefully)
     
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  19. Irfan Atique

    Irfan Atique

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    ya but they will be a bit tricky
     
  20. Irfan Atique

    Irfan Atique

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    Zamin bro I am answering this question only for you with a request please don't post guess questions......

    Answer: The Holy Prophet (S.A.W) in a hadith regarding tolerance and to show mercy says that that among all attributes of God, mercy is very special because according to a Hadith - i- Qudsi: “Truly My mercy overcomes My wrath” God, therefore, loves those who show tolerance and mercy to others, and He commands the Muslims to seek His mercy and extend mercy on others: “Let them forgive and pass over (the offence). Do you not desire that Allah should forgive you? (24:22). The Holy Prophet is called “mercy for all creatures” The Prophet encouraged his followers to keep alive the spirit of mercy and compassion so that they get entitled to God’s mercy in the Hereafter. None can be more ill- fated than the one who gets deprived of God’s mercy. “We sent thee not, but as a mercy for all creatures.” (21:107).

    The Muslims are required to follow the footsteps of the Prophet who never cursed his enemies and insulters in Makka, Taif and the battlefield. In the battle of Uhud, when some companion asked him to curse the Makkans, his reply was: “I have not been sent to curse” He kindly treated captives of Badr and forgave his fatal enemies on the conquest of Makk with tolerance. Muslims today may imitate such noble conduct and generosity of heart: “Allah intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you.” (2:185) they should not overburden their employees and should have the moral courage of tolerance and forgiving the insulters. Because they will receive huge reward from their Lord the Prophet said: “Be compassionate to those on earth and He, who is in the heavens, will be compassionate to you” (Sahi Bukhari)
    The Holy Prophet (S.A.W) in a hadith regarding evil said theat that his followers first must establish a true Islamic society based on the teachings of the Quran and Sunnah It further commands them to defend the society against all possible evils with whatever available resources they have. Holy Prophet (S.A.W) said: “When the people see a wrong doer committing a wrong and do not seize his hand, it is most likely that Allah will inflict them with His punishment” (Tirmizi). This involves use of physical force or verbal rejection or at least condemning it from heart, though it is the lowest degree of faith of a believer. Believers should remember that struggle against evil is a constant phenomenon as the ultimate source of evils is Satan: “Verily Satan is an avowed enemy to man” (12:5)
    Eradication of evil involves struggle of varying degrees depending on the available resources with the Muslim community and government. A Muslim must physically stop evil or attack it verbally, or at least have feelings of resentment for it. If sufficient resources are available, then the Muslim state may permit physical Jehad: “Believers……….. Strive hard in God’s way with their possessions and their own selves” (49:15) Otherwise, evil may be suppressed through speech or writings, and in case an individual believer is unable to utilize either resource, he is required to shun evil internally. The best way of doing this might be to seek God’s refuge: “Say I seek refuge with the Lord of day-break. From the evil of the things created” (al- Falaq)
     
  21. Lilly2318

    Lilly2318

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    ummm...this question sprang in my mind and no guess honestly no guess!
    Q- Prophet's (pbuh) teachings regarding Business
    Q- " " " Leadership ( muaz bin jabal i guess it is related to)
     

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